What Is Blockchain? How Does It Work? Blockchain vs Banking

Blockchain is a decentralized and distributed digital ledger technology that records transactions across multiple computers in a way that ensures transparency, security, and immutability. It was created as the underlying technology for the cryptocurrency Bitcoin, but its applications extend far beyond just digital currencies.

At its core, a blockchain consists of a chain of blocks, each containing a list of transactions. These transactions are grouped into blocks in chronological order. What makes blockchain unique is its decentralized nature and the consensus mechanism used to validate and add new blocks to the chain.

Here’s a simplified breakdown of how a blockchain works:

  1. Decentralization: Instead of having a single central authority, like a bank, that maintains the ledger, a blockchain is maintained by a network of nodes (computers) spread across the globe. This decentralized nature makes the system more resistant to single points of failure and censorship.
  2. Transactions: Transactions are grouped together in a block. Each block contains a certain number of transactions depending on the specific blockchain.
  3. Cryptography: Transactions within a block are secured using cryptographic hashes. These are complex mathematical functions that create a unique string of characters based on the input data. Each block also contains a reference to the previous block’s hash, forming a chain.
  4. Consensus Mechanism: Before a new block can be added to the blockchain, the network of nodes must reach a consensus on its validity. Different blockchain platforms use various consensus mechanisms like Proof of Work (PoW), Proof of Stake (PoS), Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS), and more.
  5. Mining (PoW): In a PoW-based blockchain like Bitcoin, miners compete to solve a complex mathematical puzzle. The first one to solve it gets the right to add the next block to the chain and is rewarded with new cryptocurrency coins.
  6. Immutability: Once a block is added to the chain, it becomes extremely difficult to alter it. Changing the data in one block would require changing the data in all subsequent blocks, which would require an enormous amount of computational power and would be highly visible to the network.

How Does A Blockchain Work ?

At a high level, a blockchain works by creating a decentralized and secure way to record and verify transactions. Here’s a step-by-step breakdown of how a blockchain typically operates:

  1. Transaction Creation: A contributor start a transaction by creating a digital record of it. This could be a transfer of cryptocurrency, the sale of a digital asset, or any other type of transaction that the blockchain is designed to handle.
  2. Transaction Propagation: The transaction is broadcast to the network of nodes that make up the blockchain. These nodes are computers connected to the network, and they participate in validating and recording transactions.
  3. Transaction Verification: Nodes in the network compete to validate the transaction. The process for validation depends on the consensus mechanism used by the blockchain. The most common consensus mechanism is Proof of Work (PoW), used by Bitcoin, where nodes solve complex mathematical puzzles to validate transactions. Other mechanisms like Proof of Stake (PoS) and Delegated Proof of Stake (DPoS) are also used in different blockchains.
  4. Transaction Inclusion in a Block: Once a node successfully validates a transaction, it bundles it with other validated transactions into a block. This block also contains a reference to the previous block in the chain, creating a chronological link. The creation of a new block is also a part of the consensus mechanism.
  5. Block Propagation: The newly created block is then broadcast to the network, and other nodes verify the contents of the block before accepting it as valid.
  6. Consensus and Chain Extension: To add the new block to the blockchain, a consensus mechanism ensures that a majority of nodes agree on its validity. Once consensus is reached, the new block is added to the end of the chain, and the transaction it contains is now a permanent part of the blockchain’s history.
  7. Immutability and Security: As more blocks are added to the chain, the transactions become increasingly secure due to the cryptographic connections between blocks. The use of cryptographic hashing ensures that altering a single block would require recalculating the hashes of all subsequent blocks, making tampering practically infeasible.
  8. Decentralization: The blockchain operates on a distributed network of nodes, each maintaining a copy of the entire transaction history. This decentralization finishes the need for a central authority or arbitrator to confirm and record transactions.
  9. Consensus Maintenance: The process of validating, adding new blocks, and maintaining consensus continues as new transactions are proposed and added to the blockchain. This ongoing process ensures the accuracy and integrity of the blockchain’s contents.

It’s important to note that there are variations in the specifics of how different blockchains operate. Some blockchains allow for smart contracts and other programmable features, while others prioritize scalability or privacy. Additionally, public, private, and consortium blockchains have different levels of accessibility and control. Overall, the underlying principles of decentralization, consensus, immutability, and cryptographic security are common to most blockchain implementations.

Blockchain VS Banks


  1. Decentralization: Blockchain operates in a decentralized manner, where transactions are verified and recorded by a network of participants (nodes) rather than a central authority.
  2. Transparency: Transactions on a blockchain are transparent and can be audited by anyone due to the public nature of the ledger. This transparency reduces the risk of fraud and promotes trust.
  3. Security: Blockchain employs cryptographic techniques and consensus algorithms to ensure the security of transactions and data. Once data is recorded on the blockchain, it’s difficult to alter or tamper with.
  4. Trustless Transactions: Blockchain allows parties to engage in transactions without requiring trust in a central authority. Trust is established through the technology itself, rather than relying on intermediaries.
  5. Global Accessibility: Blockchain technology enables cross-border transactions without the need for intermediaries, making it potentially more accessible to people without access to traditional banking services.
  6. Smart Contracts: Blockchain supports programmable smart contracts, which automatically execute predefined actions when certain conditions are met. This has the potential to automate complex processes and reduce the need for intermediaries.


  1. Centralization: Traditional banks operate in a centralized manner, where a single entity holds authority over transactions, account management, and monetary policies.
  2. Privacy: Banks prioritize customer privacy and offer confidentiality for financial transactions. However, this privacy is often subject to legal and regulatory requirements.
  3. Security: Banks also prioritize security and implement various measures to protect customer data and transactions. Security mechanisms include encryption, authentication, and fraud detection systems.
  4. Trust in Intermediaries: Banking relies on trust in the bank itself as an intermediary. Customers trust banks to handle their funds, process transactions, and provide financial services.
  5. Regulation: Traditional banks are heavily regulated by government authorities to ensure financial stability, consumer protection, and adherence to anti-money laundering (AML) and know your customer (KYC) regulations.
  6. Institutional Services: Banks provide a wide range of financial services beyond basic transactions, including loans, investment services, wealth management, and advisory services.

In summary, while both blockchain and banks operate within the financial domain, they have fundamental differences in terms of decentralization, transparency, security mechanisms, trust models, and the range of services they offer. Blockchain technology has the potential to disrupt certain aspects of the traditional financial system by introducing new ways of transacting and managing assets, but it’s important to note that it’s not a complete replacement for all the services that traditional banks provide. In some cases, these two concepts can complement each other to create innovative financial solutions.

How To Invest In Blockchain?

Investing in blockchain can take various forms, ranging from investing in cryptocurrencies to investing in blockchain-related companies or projects. Here are some steps to consider if you’re looking to invest in blockchain:

  1. Educate Yourself: Before you start investing, it’s essential to understand the basics of blockchain technology, how it works, and the different types of blockchain projects out there. Research the major blockchain platforms, cryptocurrencies, and trends in the industry.
  2. Understand the Risks: Investing in blockchain, like any investment, carries risks. Cryptocurrency markets can be highly volatile, and the technology landscape can change rapidly. Be ready for the probability of both gains and losses.
  3. Choose Your Investment Approach:
    • Cryptocurrencies: The most well-known investment in the blockchain space is buying cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin, Ethereum, or other altcoins. You can purchase cryptocurrencies on cryptocurrency exchanges using fiat currency (USD, EUR, etc.) or other cryptocurrencies.
    • Initial Coin Offerings (ICOs) and Token Sales: ICOs and token sales are fundraising methods used by blockchain startups to raise capital. However, they can be risky due to the lack of regulation and potential for fraud.
    • Invest in Blockchain Companies: Consider investing in publicly traded companies that are involved in blockchain technology development, integration, or services. Look for companies with solid business models and a clear blockchain strategy.
  4. Select a Reputable Exchange: If you’re investing in cryptocurrencies, choose a reputable cryptocurrency exchange to buy, sell, and store your assets. Make sure the exchange has strong security measures, a user-friendly interface, and good customer support.
  5. Secure Your Investments: Ensure that your investments are stored securely. If you’re holding cryptocurrencies, consider using hardware wallets or secure software wallets to protect your assets from hacks or theft.
  6. Diversify: Don’t put all your funds into a single cryptocurrency or project. Diversification helps spread risk and increases your chances of benefiting from various opportunities.
  7. Stay Informed: The blockchain and cryptocurrency landscape is dynamic. Stay up-to-date with news, trends, and developments in the industry. Join online communities, forums, and social media groups to engage with experts and enthusiasts.
  8. Do Due Diligence: Before investing in any blockchain project, research its team, technology, use case, and market potential. Look for projects with a clear vision, a strong team, and a viable product or service.
  9. Consider Long-Term Goals: Determine whether you’re looking for short-term gains or long-term investment. Some investors prefer to “HODL” (hold) their cryptocurrencies for the long term, while others engage in trading.
  10. Be Mindful of Regulations: Depending on your country, there might be regulations surrounding cryptocurrency investments. Be aware of tax implications and legal requirements in your jurisdiction.
  11. Seek Professional Advice: If you’re uncertain about how to proceed, consider seeking advice from financial advisors or experts who specialize in blockchain and cryptocurrency investments.

Remember that investing in blockchain carries risks, and it’s important to only invest what you can afford to lose. The blockchain industry is still evolving, and while it holds promise, it’s important to approach investments with careful consideration and informed decision-making.

Blockchain VS Bitcoin

Blockchain: A blockchain is a decentralized and distributed digital ledger technology that records transactions in a secure and transparent manner. It is combination of a blocks, where each block consist of a set of transactions. One of the key features of a blockchain is its immutability – once a block is added to the chain, it’s extremely difficult to alter the data within it.

Decentralization: Unlike traditional centralized systems, a blockchain is maintained by a network of nodes (computers) spread across the globe. This makes it more resistant to single points of failure and censorship.

Security: Blockchains use cryptographic techniques to secure transactions and ensure the integrity of the data. This makes it very difficult for malicious actors to manipulate the data.

Transparency: This transparency helps in building trust among parties.

Immutability: Once a transaction is added to a block and confirmed by the network, it becomes extremely difficult to alter or delete. Each block contains a unique cryptographic

Bitcoin is the first and most well-known cryptocurrency, created by an anonymous person or group of people using the pseudonym Satoshi Nakamoto in 2008. Bitcoin introduced the concept of using a blockchain as the underlying technology to enable peer-to-peer transactions without the need for intermediaries like banks.

Digital Currency: Allows individuals to send and receive value over the internet without the need for a central authority.

Limited Supply: There is a maximum supply of 21 million Bitcoins that can ever be mined, which introduces scarcity and is intended to prevent inflation.

Mining: Bitcoin deals are vindicated and added to the blockchain through a process called mining. Miners break complex fine mystifications to validate deals and secure the network. In return for their sweats, they’re awarded with recently formed Bitcoins

Store of Value: Many proponents consider Bitcoin to be a store of value similar to gold. It’s often referred to as “digital gold” due to its scarcity and decentralized nature.

Types of Blockchains

  1. Public Blockchains: These blockchains are open to anyone and allow anyone to participate, view transactions, and contribute to the consensus process. Bitcoin is an example of a public blockchain.
  2. Private Blockchains: These blockchains are restricted to a specific group of participants and are often used by organizations for internal purposes. They offer more control over who can access the network and participate in the consensus process.
  3. Consortium Blockchains: These blockchains are a hybrid of public and private blockchains. They are operated by a group of organizations and require permission to participate.

Applications of Blockchain:

  • Cryptocurrencies: The most well-known application of blockchain is cryptocurrencies like Bitcoin and Ethereum, where blockchain serves as the foundation for secure, transparent transactions.
  • Supply Chain Management: Blockchain can enhance transparency and traceability in supply chains by recording every step of a product’s journey from source to consumer.
  • Financial Services: Blockchain can simplify and streamline processes in areas like cross-border payments, remittances, and trade settlements.
  • Healthcare: Blockchain can secure and share patient data across healthcare providers while maintaining patient privacy.
  • Identity Verification: Blockchain can be used to create decentralized and verifiable digital identities, reducing the risks associated with centralized identity databases.
  • Voting Systems: Blockchain-based voting systems aim to improve the security and transparency of elections.

These are just a few examples, and the potential applications of blockchain technology continue to expand as the technology matures and innovators explore new possibilities.

Blockchain Challenges and Limitations

While blockchain technology offers numerous benefits and potential applications, it also faces several challenges and limitations that need to be addressed for its widespread adoption and success. Here are some of the key challenges:

  1. Scalability: One of the most pressing challenges is scalability. Traditional blockchains like Bitcoin and Ethereum can struggle to handle a large number of transactions quickly and efficiently. As more users and applications join the network, the blockchain can become slow and congested.
  2. Energy Consumption: Proof of Work (PoW) consensus mechanisms, used by some blockchains like Bitcoin, require significant computational power, leading to high energy consumption. This has raised concerns about the environmental impact of blockchain technology.
  3. Interoperability: Different blockchains often have their own protocols and structures, making it difficult for them to communicate and share data seamlessly. The lack of interoperability hinders the potential benefits of a connected and unified blockchain ecosystem.
  4. Regulatory Challenges: Blockchain technology operates in a legal and regulatory landscape that is still evolving. Different countries have varying regulations for cryptocurrencies, ICOs (Initial Coin Offerings), and smart contracts, leading to uncertainty and potential obstacles.
  5. Lack of Standardization: The lack of industry-wide standards for blockchain can hinder collaboration and the development of compatible solutions. Interoperability and data sharing are hampered when different blockchains use diverse protocols and structures.
  6. Security of Smart Contracts: Smart contracts are powerful but can contain vulnerabilities that can be exploited by malicious actors. Bugs in smart contracts have led to substantial losses, highlighting the need for thorough auditing and secure coding practices.
  7. User Experience and Complexity: For non-technical users, interacting with blockchain-based applications can be complex and confusing. Improving the user experience and making blockchain technology more user-friendly is a challenge that needs to be addressed.
  8. Privacy Concerns: While blockchain transactions are often transparent, there is a growing need for privacy in certain use cases. Striking a balance between transparency and privacy is essential, particularly in industries like finance and healthcare.
  9. Data Storage and Size: The data stored on blockchains can grow rapidly over time, creating challenges for storage and data retrieval. As the blockchain size increases, it can become more resource-intensive to run a node, which could lead to centralization.
  10. Legal and Ethical Issues: Decentralized systems can raise legal and ethical questions, such as accountability for illegal or inappropriate content stored on a blockchain or disputes arising from smart contract execution.
  11. Adoption and Education: Blockchain technology is still relatively new and complex. Widespread adoption requires education and awareness-building among various industries, stakeholders, and the general public.
  12. Resistance to Change: Integrating blockchain into existing systems may require significant changes to established processes, which can be met with resistance and reluctance.

Despite these challenges, ongoing research, development, and innovation in the blockchain space are aimed at addressing these limitations. Solutions such as shading, layer 2 protocols, consensus algorithm improvements, and efforts to standardize protocols are all steps toward overcoming these hurdles and unlocking the full potential of blockchain technology.

Blockchain Final Conclusion

In conclusion, blockchain technology represents a revolutionary leap forward in how we store, share, and verify data and transactions. Its decentralized, transparent, and secure nature has the potential to transform industries and reshape the way we interact with digital systems. However, while the promise of blockchain is immense, it’s important to recognize the challenges and limitations that must be navigated for its widespread adoption and success.

As we move forward, addressing scalability issues, reducing energy consumption, enhancing interoperability, and establishing regulatory frameworks will be critical in realizing the technology’s full potential. Industry collaboration and the development of standardized protocols are essential to create a more seamless and connected blockchain ecosystem.

The applications of blockchain extend far beyond cryptocurrencies, reaching into supply chain management, healthcare, finance, identity verification, and more. Its ability to provide transparency, security, and efficiency in a trustless environment has the potential to reshape established systems, eliminate intermediaries, and empower individuals.

The future of blockchain technology hinges on a combination of technological advancements, regulatory evolution, and a growing understanding of its possibilities. It requires the dedication of researchers, developers, businesses, and policymakers to ensure that blockchain fulfills its promise as a transformative force for innovation and progress. While challenges lie ahead, the potential rewards make the pursuit of blockchain’s evolution a journey well worth taking. As the technology continues to evolve, we can look forward to a future where blockchain plays a central role in shaping the way we interact with the digital world.

“Happiness is not in money, but in shopping.”

Simply Defined Blockchain